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SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY INFRASRUCTURE OF UZBEKISTAN
Dr. PARPIEV Odilkhuja (PhD in physics and mathematics)
Committee for Coordinating of Science and Technology Development under Cabinet Ministers of the Republic of Uzbekistan
Deputy Executive Director
BRIEF COUNTRY REVIEW
Uzbekistan, in the ancient cradle between the Amu-Darya and Syr-Darya rivers, is the most historically fascinating of the Central Asian republics. Within it are some of the oldest towns in the world (Samarkand, Bukhara, Khiva etc.), some of the Silk Road's main centers and most of the region's architectural splendors.
Full country name: Republic of Uzbekistan
Area: 447,400 sq km
Population: 26,155 million
Capital city: Tashkent (pop 2.6 million)
Religion: 88% Muslim (mostly Sunnis), 9% Eastern Orthodox
President: Islam Karimov
Major industries: Textiles, food processing, machine building, metallurgy, natural gas, cotton, vegetables, fruits, grain, livestock
SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY INFRASRUCTURE OF UZBEKISTAN
Culture, literature, science of Uzbekistan has a deep history. The science of Uzbekistan origins from very ancient times and has powerful historical roots. During the centuries it is a property of all mankind in discovery of secrets of nature, astronomy, mathematics, medicine, philosophy, law, theology and literature.
Scientific discoveries of Uzbek thinkers made a gold fund of the world, general human science and culture. Names of such great people as Al-Beruni, Ibn Sina, Alisher Navoi, Amir Temur, Imam Bukhari, Ulugbek, Bobur, who significantly contributed to the world civilisation, are widely known all over the world. The merits of scientists - thinkers Al-Fergani (Alfraganus), Khorezmi (Algoritmus), Ibn Sina (Avicenna), personifying wisdom of east, were appreciated not only in the East, but also in Europe. The names of scientists - humanists and educators of Islamic philosophy Bakhavuddin Nakshbandi, Khodja Akhmad Yassavi, Makhmud Az-Zamakhshari etc. are highly esteemed in Muslem world.
Deep transformations in all spheres of society that begun from the moment of declaration of independence of Uzbekistan, have affected significantly to the character of development of science and technology sphere. The independence has opened for us new opportunities in revival and further development of great achievements and traditions of our previous generations.
At present the state science and technological policy of Uzbekistan is directed on concentration of its efforts of the country scientific and technological potential for solution of social-economic problems in conditions of gradual transition to market economy. The approaches, appropriate to the transition period, for development of science and technology have been offered, and the state scientific and technical programs on priority directions of development of science and technologies have been formed and pursued.
The basis of national legislative system of the science and technology sphere has been formed: the laws on legal protection of scientific and technological results and objects of intellectual property have been approved and put into action, the normative documents regulating the certain fields of state support and stimulation of scientific & technological and innovative activities have been developed. The National Patent System has been formed. State Patent Office was set up; the institution of patent attorneys successfully operates; Uzbekistan signed more then 25 international agreements in the field of intellectual property protection.
Today Uzbekistan is a large centre of science in Central Asia having advanced research base and high quality scientific staff. Uzbekistan Scientists carry out fundamental and applied researches on major directions of modern science, scientific schools of a world level were created. The Science & Technology infrastructure of Uzbekistan includes more than 350 institutions of academic, university and industry researches. About 45 000 persons are engaged in the R & D sphere.
The Committee for Coordinating of Science and Technology Development under Cabinet Ministers of the Republic of Uzbekistan on behalf of the State acts as the main co-ordinating bogy in the sphere of science and technology is responsible for its sustainable development. The formation of legislative basis of scientific - technological and innovative processes is one of the key tasks of the Committee.
The protectionist measures of the state promote formation of infrastructure of socially oriented market economy, development innovative sphere of scientific and technical activity essentially influencing structural changes in branches of manufacture, increase specific weight of final product of a high limit degree, reduction of import of production and creation a base for manufacture of competitive production, dynamic development in regions of the country of small high technologies and development available scientific and technical potential there.
The state encourages and stimulates attraction resources of foreign investors for development science and technology of the republic through participation of science teams and scientists of Uzbekistan in the international scientific and technical programs, creation of international science centres, technological parks and business incubators and other organisational forms of innovative process in Uzbekistan.
The priorities of development science and technology of the republic are formed in view of priorities of economic and social development of the Republic of Uzbekistan and provide creation and development advanced technologies ensuring manufacture of import-substituting, competitive production in Uzbekistan, pursuing fundamental researches on critical scientific directions in the context of advanced trends of development of the world science.
A principle has been developed, known from the world experience, of management of scientific and technical and innovative activity. The system, accepted in Uzbekistan, of state support to fundamental and applied researches as state orders, as well as a system of grants on pursuing innovative development works assumes orientation on final scientific and technological results, stimulation of competition of intellectual production, as well as effective functioning economic-legal mechanisms determining the responsibility of the participants of scientific and technical and innovative activity for results of work and targeted use of the public funds.
The support is rendered, including financial and material resources, of not certain establishments of science and organisational structures, but concrete programs and projects, passed state expert evaluation. Such state support is in the form of stimulation of development science, technology and innovations by economic methods, active use of market mechanisms of regulation relations in scientific and technical sphere, creation of conditions for development competitiveness and enterpreneurship in scientific and innovative sphere.
In Uzbekistan scientific and technical alliances for financing applied scientific and technological development have been created within the framework of priority directions of economic and social development of the countries allowing to carry out these development works combining the use of budget resources, as well as share means of branches and regions, enterprises and organisations interested in result of development works for solution of problems set forth by them.
In Uzbekistan mechanism of realisation scientific and technical and innovative activity based on a program-targeted principle and ensuring a high degree of sustainability on the chain "fundamental investigations - applied researches - innovation projects" has been created and realised.
The realisation of powerful structural, investment and innovative policy at the simultaneous use of methods and stimulus of market economy is one of major priorities of state scientific and technical policy realised in the Republic of Uzbekistan.
Uzbekistan for the period of its independence has concluded about 60 Intergovernmental agreements on co-operation in the field of science and technology. Development of international scientific and technical links is stipulated on the one hand, by the necessity of support of scientific researches carried out in the country, and technological development works, creation of favourable conditions for bringing of Uzbekistan to the world scientific and technical community for coincidence with global integration processes; on the other hand - securing national interests, first of all technological safety, protection of intellectual property, protection of rights and interests of the scientists abroad.
The active and full access of Uzbekistan to the world exchange of high technologies, its integration in world economic system is an effective tool of achievement of the major national purposes. At the beginning of XXI century globalisation of scientific, technical and innovative activity becomes extremely important and priority one in the foreign economic policy of our state.
Uzbekistan is a member of the World Intellectual Property Organisation (WIPO) and is among a number of countries, observing conditions of five major international agreements directed on civilised use of industrial property objects: the convention set up WIPO, Paris Convention on protection the industrial property, Contract about patent co-operation, Madrid agreement on the international registration of trade marks and Contract on the laws on trade marks.
Preparation for joining the World trade Organisation by Uzbekistan is run now, the documents for joining a number of agreements administered by WIPO regulating international recognition of microorganisms deposition for the purposes of patent procedure, international patent classification and international classification of goods and services for registration trade marks have been drawn up.
The scientific and technological co-operation of Uzbekistan with the countries of European Union is successfully carried out within the framework of Agreement on Partnership and Co-operation from 2000 and such EU scientific programs as INTAS and COPERNICUS.
Co-operation with NATO Science Committee extends gradually year by year. For the last years in Uzbekistan scientific seminars on key issues of development science, engineering and technologies, urgent problems of development innovative processes and globalisation of S $ T sphere were regularly held. By the invitation of NATO Science Committee scientists and experts of Uzbekistan actively participate in scientific seminars organised by NATO, at conferences on organisation and realisation of defence-oriented scientific researches.
The joint Uzbek-German scientific and technical projects in solid surface physics, as well as catalysis chemistry directed on development of effective methods and technologies for application in electronic, oil refining, gas industry etc are successfully carried out on the basis co-funding by Germany Federal Ministry for Education, Science and Technology (BMBF) and Center for Science and Technologies.
Co-operation with the French scientists actively extends in the field of astronomy, archaeology, environmental protection, physics, material science, chemistry, other areas of science and technology. The works on industrial approbation of the Uzbek welding materials at laser welding of products from aluminium alloys are run.
Partner relation were established with the USA organisations supporting research works, occupied in transfer of technologies and promoting commercialisation of scientific production, among which the Civil Researches and Development Foundation (CRDF); the University of Georgia, co-operation with which is carried out within the framework the International research program "Study, preservation and rational use of resources of deserts of Central Asia"; the American company "Honeywell"; the corporation "Novell" and "Microsoft", with which agreements were signed on realisation of complex measures on legalisation of purchase, installation and support of software in the territory of Uzbekistan.
Scientific and technical co-operation with organisations of Japan, Republic of Korea, India, Peoples' Republic of China and a number of other advanced countries is developed successfully.
The strategy of development of Uzbekistan is focused on following priorities:
- liberalisation in political, economic life, state and public construction;
- the further spiritual updating of the society;
- sustainable, permanent growth of welfare of people, strengthening social protection of the population;
- structural transformations in economy;
- provision of stability, peace, international and civil consent in the society, territorial integrity of the country.
All this is made with the sole purpose - to create conditions for realisation of deep socio-economic transformations, construction of strong democratic society and lawful state, provision of peaceful life and creative work of our people.
Today at the beginning of the XXI century Uzbekistan has a precisely elaborated course. We exactly understand the prospect, ways of tasks solution of our society construction, intention to occupy a worthy place in world community.